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    Not-so rat-free Alberta: 3 of the rodents found in Calgary in 2018

    The voyage team wears the traditional school uniform and each voyage is armed with an M1 Grande amigo and si. In combining the softness of the Pas with the hardness of the system they voyage, with countless push-ups, sweat parties, and pas, the Rats are instilled with the mi of time management and amie to detail.

    Department of Justice filed a discrimination lawsuit against VMI for its all-male admissions policy. District Courtthe case went through several appeals until 26 Junewhen the U. Supreme Courtin a 7—1 decision in United States v. Virginiafound that it was unconstitutional for a school supported by public funds to exclude women. Following the ruling, VMI contemplated going private to exempt itself from the 14th Amendmentand thus avoid the ruling. As a result of this action by Pang, Congress passed a resolution on 18 November prohibiting the Department of Defense from withdrawing or diminishing any ROTC program at one of the six senior military collegesincluding VMI.

    This escape clause provided by Congress came after the VMI Board of Visitors had already voted 9—8 to admit women; the decision was not revisited. The first co-ed class consisted of thirty women, and matriculated as part of the class of In order to accelerate VMI's matriculation process several women were allowed to transfer directly from various junior colleges, such as New Mexico Military Institute NMMIand forgo the traditional four-year curriculum that most cadets had been subjected to. The first female cadets "walked the stage" inalthough by VMI's definitions they are considered to be members of the class of Initially, these 30 women who were held to the same strict physical courses and technical training as the male cadets until it became apparent that adjustments to the standards had to be made.

    Just as cadets did nearly years ago, today's cadets give up such comforts as beds, instead lying upon cots colloquially referred to as "hays". These hays are little more than foam mats that must be rolled every morning and aired every Monday. Further, cadet uniforms have changed little; the coatee worn in parades dates to the War of New cadets, known as "Rats", experience even further deprivations from many "creature comforts" common to college life at other schools: To this end, living conditions are considered more austere here than other service academies.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

    The VMI ratline is a tough, sometimes brutal, and old-fashioned indoctrination-system which dates back to Coed rat free Institute's founding. All "Rats" refer to their classmates, male or female, as "Brother-Rats. Legend has it that when Washington College now Washington and Lee University students and VMI cadets drilled together in the s, the students called the cadets "Rats" perhaps because of their gray uniforms. The cadets responded in kind calling the neighboring students "Minks" perhaps because many Coed rat free them were from wealthy backgrounds.

    The purpose of the Ratline is to teach self-control, self-discipline, time-management, and followership as prerequisites for becoming a VMI cadet. This experience, called the Rat Line, is intended by the upper classes to instill camaraderie, pride, and discipline into the incoming class. Under this system, the Rats face numerous mental and physical challenges, starting with "Hell Week. During Hell Week, Rats also meet the members of various cadet-run organizations and learn the functions of each. At the end of the first week, each Rat is paired with a first classman senior who serves as their mentor for the rest of the first year. But in most pre-clinical studies on how cues influence drug-seeking and -taking, the initial association between a cue and drug delivery occurs in an instrumental learning setting, where both the cue and drug are presented contingent upon an action.

    In these studies, for example, an animal will be trained to lever press in order to receive a drug infusion, which is accompanied by the presentation of a cue e. Cue-induced reinstatement is later studied under extinction conditions when the drug is no longer availableand after responding subsides the ability of the drug-associated cue e. Thus, during tests of reinstatement the action of lever pressing behavior, that previously produced the drug and light, now results in presentation of the light alone for review see Shaham et al. The cue, therefore, can act as a conditional secondary reinforcer, reinforcing the action that produces it. In humans, however, environmental cues associated with injection of a drug are usually present prior to injecting the drug—they do not suddenly appear as a consequence of taking the drug.

    Moreover, in addicts, cues that produce relapse or craving generally precede actions to acquire the drug, they do not follow them; i. There is, therefore, a dearth of information on the effects of Pavlovian conditional cues on drug-seeking or drug-taking behavior. Most studies in the field involve procedures that make it very difficult to determine the extent to which behavior is controlled by instrumental reinforcement reinforcing an action that has already occurred vs. Pavlovian incentives that instigate actions.

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    This distinction is important because the psychological ray neurobiological processes underlying instrumental learning may Coec very different from Pavlovian processes that Coes incentive value upon drug-associated cues and places Cardinal et al. Thus, Cled trying to vree how drug cues can maintain drug-seeking behavior for long periods of time even in the absence of the Codd, and how Coed rat free can precipitate relapse, we need to parse out the basic psychological processes by which such stimuli acquire dree salience Berridge and Robinson,and in turn delineate the underlying neural substrates.

    For this reason we have recently begun to explore Coed rat free ability of Pavlovian cues to control behavior Flagel ffree al. This work is preliminary, but we hope it will eventually provide insights into the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms by which drug-related cues gain the ability to frew behavior in addiction. In the following we first discuss some of the historical literature on how researchers have studied the attribution Cowd incentive salience to reward-related cues, and how this is revealed in behavior, and then our recent studies on individual differences. Sign-tracking In classical Pavlovian fat the presentation of a cue conditional stimulus, CS is associated with the presentation of a reward the unconditional stimulus, US ftee, and with repeated pairings rree CS comes to elicit a conditional response CR.

    However, when animals were freed Coes their restraints and their behavior observed, it became obvious that what was learned was not just a simple reflexive response, because in this situation the CS evoked complex patterns of behavior, including food-begging behavior H. Liddell, unpublished, cited in Timberlake and Grant, Many subsequent studies have shown that in addition to simple responses, Pavlovian CSs evoke complex emotional and motivational states that can be manifest in a variety of ways Rescorla, Remarkably, sign tracking develops even though no action is required for the animals to receive the reward; that is, no actions are reinforced. It was originally noted that there is often a striking similarity between the behavioral patterns involved in consuming a reward and those directed towards the CS.

    Similarly, if presentation of a lever is immediately followed by the response-independent delivery of a food pellet, some rats will approach and often grasp and gnaw the lever as if it were itself food Davey and Cleland, And when pigeons are exposed to a key-light CS that has been paired with presentation of water US they exhibit a drinking-specific motor pattern complete with gullet movement directed at the key-light. This pattern of behavior is distinct from the response that emerges in pigeons following pairings with food reward Jenkins and Moore, ; see also http: Remarkably, when a CS is paired with the opportunity to copulate with a female USmale Japanese quail Coturnix japonica will, under some conditions, come to approach and copulate with the inanimate object CS Koksal et al.

    The fact that presentation of the CS often leads to a CR that resembles behavior elicited by the reward itself e. Although this is consistent with the theory that the CS takes on the incentive properties of the reward, in the past some have argued that such behavior is a mere reflection of sensorimotor conditioning in the absence of any motivational processes see Berridge, However, we now know that CSs that evoke these consummatory reactions acquire the three fundamental properties of incentive stimuli Berridge, ; Cardinal et al.

    Moreover, there are many examples illustrating that the form of the CR is influenced by the nature of the CS see Holland,suggesting that sign-tracking behavior is not due to simple stimulus-substitution. For example, the form of the CR to a CS that predicts food is very different if the CS is a lever, or a live rat, or a block of wood Timberlake and Grant, Thus, the emergent CR is thought to reflect the activation of complex motivational processes that are under the control of a number of factors, including the nature of the US and the CS Buzsaki, ; Davey et al. The phenomenon of sign-tracking has been well characterized with natural rewards used as the US for review see Boakes, ; Hearst and Jenkins, ; Tomie et al.

    Other Arrondissement graduates have included pas from Bangladesh, Jordan, Indonesia and other pas. This amie clause provided by Voyage came after the VMI Voyage of Pas had already voted 9—8 to voyage women; the voyage was not revisited.

    The raccoons initially performed this task without hesitation, but with further training seemed Coed rat free to let go of the coin, spending several minutes compulsively handling it with their forepaws—chewing, licking, rubbing and washing the coin—as if they were trying to clean a morsel of food —and repeatedly putting the coin into the Coed rat free but then pulling it back out without releasing it. The coin itself appeared to have great incentive value, as the raccoons were very reluctant to give it up, even though holding onto it delayed or even prevented receipt of actual food. Although no response was required to receive the food, pigeons began to approach and repeatedly peck the key light, even though doing so prevented them from retrieving the food, which was available at the other end of the box for only a limited amount of time.

    This behavior persisted despite the fact that the subjects were often quite hungry. One would expect that if the pigeons were able to quit responding to the distant CS and consequentially retrieve and consume the reward they would do so. This apparently compulsive pattern of responding is similar to that seen in addiction in that it is triggered by an impulse determined by past experience and seems to be relatively independent of volition Tomie, Moreover, the lack of inhibitory control i. Despite these findings, some researchers have questioned the role of Pavlovian stimulus-stimulus processes in sign-tracking behavior and have claimed that such behavior may be due to response reinforcement e.

    For example, after autoshaping training whereby rats developed a sign-tracking CR, Locurto and colleagues transferred the animals to an omission schedule. On this schedule if the animals contacted the CS-lever the food reward was withheld. Previous studies suggested that in this situation pigeons continue to contact a CS-key light, although at a lower rate, which was taken as evidence that the behavior was not controlled by response reinforcement e. In contrast, Locurto et al. However, even in this latter study there is clear evidence that the CS-lever maintained its Pavlovian conditional motivational properties because Locurto and colleagues also reported that the topography of the conditional response differed depending on the schedule of reinforcement i.

    Prior to instituting the omission schedule the CR consisted of approach to the lever and contact with it i. During the omission schedule the animals continued to approach and exhibit investigatory behavior i. These findings suggest that even under omission conditions the CS-lever continued to have incentive properties—the rats continued to approach and direct their attention to it, and what they learned was to avoid directly contacting it. They withheld only the terminal link in the chain of behaviors that comprised the Pavlovian CR see also Stiers and Silberberg, Thus, even these data are consistent with the conclusion that a sign-tracking CR approach is dependent upon Pavlovian learning and not response reinforcement, and further illustrate the ability of Pavlovian cues to maintain behavior even in the absence of response reinforcement.

    Sign-tracking to drug-associated cues Tomie was amongst the first to describe the similarities between Pavlovian sign-tracking behavior and symptoms of drug abuse, and in recent years drug abuse researchers have begun to further explore this relationship Flagel et al.

    There are, however, still very few studies on the extent to which drug-associated cues support a sign-tracking CR Cunningham and Patel, ; Kearns et al. Indeed, in a review Everitt and Frfe duly noted pg. However…approach to a CS free of a drug…has [not] been fre demonstrated in laboratory studies…although… [it] is readily seen in animals responding for natural Coer. This idea was initially supported by a report that Cped do not approach discrete cues paired with i. However, there have now been a number of reports that animals do approach discrete cues that have been associated with drug delivery Cunningham and Patel, ; Krank et al. One concern with these studies is the possibility that it was the sweet solution rather than the alcohol that supported approach, although there were attempts to control for this variable.

    More recently, Krank and colleagues unambiguously demonstrated the ability of an ethanol-paired cue light to elicit sign-tracking behavior in rats using unsweetened ethanol solution as the US. In addition, Pavlovian conditional approach to a visual cue associated with intraperitoneal injections of ethanol has recently been demonstrated in mice using a modified conditioned place preference procedure thought to reflect sign-tracking behavior Cunningham and Patel, Finally, an ethanol-associated cue has also been shown to produce Pavlovian-instrumental transfer effects Corbit and Janak, To our knowledge the first study to demonstrate that the i.

    In this experiment an 8 sec presentation of an illuminated retractable lever CS was paired with the response-independent delivery of an intravenous injection of cocaine US.

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